Today’s daf deals with an important question in relation to leaving food on top of a stove/oven before shabbat to remain hot into shabbat.
Chananyah and the Rabanan argue whether one may place food that is cooked k’Ma’achal Ben Derusa’i (depending on different opinions this could be 1/2 cooked or 1/3rd cooked), right before Shabbat, on top of a stove whose coals have not been cleared away or covered. What is the Halachah?
(a) Rashi (DH v’Rav Sheshet) and Tosfot (DH Amar Rav Sheshet) in the name of Rabbeinu Hannanel write that the Halachah follows Chananyah, and one is permitted to do Shehiyah and place food on a stove whose coals have not been cleared away or covered, as long as the food was already cooked k’Ma’achal ben Derusa’i.
(b) The Rosh (3:1) cites many Rishonim (including the Rif and Rambam) who rule that it is prohibited to do Shehiyah on an uncovered flame. The Rosh prefers this ruling.
The Shulchan Aruch (OC 253:1) cites both opinions of the Rishonim. He first cites the opinion of the Rosh, Rif, and Rambam (b). He cites the opinion of Rashi and Tosfot by saying, “And there are those who say….” The Bi’ur Halakhah points out that this wording of the Shulchan Aruch indicates that he rules like the first opinion.
The Bi’ur Halachah adds that we should not reprimand one who is lenient, who relies on the opinion of Rashi and Tosfot, because, as the Rosh writes, “There is a major argument as to how to rule in this matter, and the Jewish people are very attached to the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbat and will not listen to us if we tell them to be stringent, therefore we should leave them to practice their custom of relying on those who rule like Chananyah.” However, for oneself (as opposed to instructing others what to do), one should be stringent and not do Shehiyah on an uncovered flame with a food that is not completely cooked (or with a food that will improve in taste the more it is cooked), unless there are extenuating circumstances that compel him to do so, such as if guests arrived at one’s home not long before Shabbat.